This section includes the framework for the research including the background of the research and the reason for undertaking research in this area. This section will outline the aims of objectives of the study and the research question.
Background and context
In recent years there has been interest in the generational differences that exist in society. We categorize individuals by generation and use this distinction to predict their needs and behaviors. These generational differences are especially obviously in the working environment as almost every organization will employ individuals from different generations. For the purposes of this study we will define the employee expectation as follows;
ii. Research Aims
The aim of the study is to determine if there is a link between an employee’s job expectation and their engagement levels. The researcher wishes to determine, in Bangladesh have unrealistically high expectations when it comes to their career and if this contributes to poor engagement levels.
iii. Research Question
The research question of the study is ‘Employee Expectation from Job’ Further Research Objectives:
Research Summary
The expectation from job, a group-assessment from Bangladesh Institute of Management (BIM), PGDHRM course, helps respondents to better understand and manage their work expectations and to transform their attitude toward work.
Profile development occurred in two phases:
1) The alpha research was conducted to identify the content and types of job expectations. This research was based on responses from a sample of 50 individuals. Through Factor Analysis, 5 categories of work expectations were identified: Recognition, Environment, Career Growth, and Compensation.
2) The beta research was conducted to confirm the existence of the 5 scales, to improve the items within each scale, and to determine the reliability and validity of the scales. This research was based on responses from a sample of 50 respondents. Analyses confirmed the existence of the 5 scales. In addition, all scales were found to be highly reliable and valid.
Theoretical Background
Discuss one’s expectations of work is a relatively new phenomenon. Until recently, the psychological contract may not have been discussed, but it was understood. Specifically, in the traditional workplace, a psychological contract represented an unspoken expectation that, in exchange for loyalty and hard work, an employee would be compensated fairly and would have a job for life. This is no longer the case. In today’s workplace, change and uncertainty are considered normal, and what constitutes a psychological contract is markedly different. Employees are still expected to work hard and employers continue to hope for loyalty; however, employees are no longer offered a job for life in return for loyalty and hard work.
Employees have expectations for their careers and the organisation for which they work, there is need therefore that employers should match organisational expectations and opportunities with employee skills, talents and expectations. To match employee needs with organisational expectations, it is contingent upon the understanding of motivations, desires as well as preferences of each employee therefore, making work to be a satisfying and positive experience for employees when their work expectations are being met along organisational expectations.
In Bangladesh, Today’s workplace demands high work performance from the employees although this does not suggest that work is put ahead of everything, it rather shows the competitiveness of work organisations and the need to retain committed, satisfied and productive employees through the balance of work life and personal life. However, what happens when there are discrepancies in work life and personal life i.e. expectations are continually abused, expectations are continuously at variance and unrealistic expectations through biases in perception on job satisfaction. These can become the catalyst of unrest and great unhappiness.
1.2 Objective of the Study
The study examined the role of employee’s expectations from job. This was achieved through the following specific objectives which were used as guild to navigate into the research focus;
1) To identify employee’s expectations in the workplace vis-a-vis job satisfaction and turnover.
2) To identity major challenges in employees’ expectation.
3) To examine significant relationship between employee expectations and job satisfaction
4) To determine the extent of relationship between employee expectation and job expectation.
3 Alpha Research Item Development
In developing items, the goal was to create a comprehensive list of general (i.e., not job-specific) work expectations. First, a thorough review of academic literature, mass-market books and periodicals, and Web sites was conducted in search of information on employee expectations and the psychological contract. Twenty categories of work expectations were identified in the literature. Inscape Publishing research staff then developed five items to measure each of the 20 categories. Items were written to be clear, concise, and comprehensive measures of the given category. In total, the alpha version of the response form contained 100 items.
Response Format
Research Sample A five-point Likert scale was selected as the response format. The ratings were as follows:
1 = Not Important
2 = Slightly Important
3 = Important
4 = Very Important
5 = Essential
Research Sample
The alpha version of the response form was completed by 964 respondents in the U.S. and Canada. Respondents had to be employed within an organization, as many of the items referred to relationships with either a supervisor or co-workers. As shown in Table 1, the research sample was well distributed across demographic variables.
Top Ten Job Expectations we Found
What do people look for in a job? What do they expect or require from it? The following list is representative and is given in the order people have ranked them over the years:
Type of work: the kind of work that makes the best use of one’s abilities and gives one a feeling of accomplishment.
Security: having a job that provides a steady employment.
Company: working for a company that has a good reputation, that one can be proud of working for.
Advancement: being able to progress in one’s job or career, having the chance to advance in the company.
Coworkers: having coworkers who are competent and congenial.
Pay: being paid at least enough to meet one’s needs, and being paid fairly in comparison to others.
Supervision: having an immediate supervisor who is competent, considerate, and fair.
Hours: having working hours that allow one enough time with family and/or time to pursue other strong interests and live one’s preferred lifestyle.
Benefits: having benefits that meet one’s needs and compare well with those of others.
Working Conditions: having physical working conditions that are safe, not injurious to health, not stressful, and even comfortable.